Planning under Risk and Knightian Uncertainty

Felipe W. Trevizan, Fábio G. Cozman, Leliane N. de Barros

Two noteworthy models of planning in AI are probabilistic planning (based on MDPs and its generalizations) and nondeterministic planning (mainly based on model checking). In this paper we: (1) show that probabilistic and nondeterministic planning are extremes of a rich continuum of problems that deal simultaneously with risk and (Knightian) uncertainty; (2) obtain a unifying model for these problems using imprecise MDPs; (3) derive a simplified Bellman's principle of optimality for our model; and (4) show how to adapt and analyze state-of-art algorithms such as (L)RTDP and LDFS in this unifying setup. We discuss examples and connections to various proposals for planning under (general) uncertainty.