Knowledge Base Completion Using Embeddings and Rules / 1859
Quan Wang, Bin Wang, Li Guo
Knowledge bases (KBs) are often greatly incomplete, necessitating a demand for KB completion. A promising approach is to embed KBs into latent spaces and make inferences by learning and operating on latent representations. Such embedding models, however, do not make use of any rules during inference and hence have limited accuracy. This paper proposes a novel approach which incorporates rules seamlessly into embedding models for KB completion. It formulates inference as an integer linear programming (ILP) problem, with the objective function generated from embedding models and the constraints translated from rules. Solving the ILP problem results in a number of facts which 1) are the most preferred by the embedding models, and 2) comply with all the rules. By incorporating rules, our approach can greatly reduce the solution space and significantly improve the inference accuracy of embedding models. We further provide a slacking technique to handle noise in KBs, by explicitly modeling the noise with slack variables. Experimental results on two publicly available data sets show that our approach significantly and consistently outperforms state-of-the-art embedding models in KB completion. Moreover, the slacking technique is effective in identifying erroneous facts and ambiguous entities, with a precision higher than 90%.