Online Mechanism Design for Vehicle-to-Grid Car Parks / 286
Enrico H. Gerding, Sebastian Stein, Sofia Ceppi, Valentin Robu
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) is a promising approach whereby electric vehicles (EVs) are used to store excess electricity supply (e.g., from renewable sources), which is sold back to the grid in times of scarcity. In this paper we consider the setting of a smart car park, where EVs come and go, and can be used for V2G while parked. We develop novel allocation and payment mechanisms which truthfully elicit the EV owners' preferences and constraints, including arrival, departure, required charge, as well as the costs of discharging due to loss of efficiency of the battery. The car park will schedule the charging and discharging of each EV, ensuring the constraints of the EVs are met, and taking into consideration predictions about future electricity prices. Optimally solving the global problem is intractable, and we present three novel heuristic online scheduling algorithms. We show that, under certain conditions, two of these satisfy monotonicity and are therefore truthful. We furthermore evaluate the algorithms using simulations, and we show that some of our algorithms benefit significantly from V2G, achieving positive benefit for the car park even when agents do not pay for using it.