Task-Level Curriculum Learning for Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Main track. Pages 3861-3867. https://doi.org/10.24963/ijcai.2020/534
Non-autoregressive translation (NAT) achieves faster inference speed but at the cost of worse accuracy compared with autoregressive translation (AT). Since AT and NAT can share model structure and AT is an easier task than NAT due to the explicit dependency on previous target-side tokens, a natural idea is to gradually shift the model training from the easier AT task to the harder NAT task. To smooth the shift from AT training to NAT training, in this paper, we introduce semi-autoregressive translation (SAT) as intermediate tasks. SAT contains a hyperparameter k, and each k value defines a SAT task with different degrees of parallelism. Specially, SAT covers AT and NAT as its special cases: it reduces to AT when k=1 and to NAT when k=N (N is the length of target sentence). We design curriculum schedules to gradually shift k from 1 to N, with different pacing functions and number of tasks trained at the same time. We called our method as task-level curriculum learning for NAT (TCL-NAT). Experiments on IWSLT14 De-En, IWSLT16 En-De, WMT14 En-De and De-En datasets show that TCL-NAT achieves significant accuracy improvements over previous NAT baselines and reduces the performance gap between NAT and AT models to 1-2 BLEU points, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Natural Language Processing: Machine Translation