An Expert-Level Card Playing Agent Based on a Variant of Perfect Information Monte Carlo Sampling / 125
Despite some success of Perfect Information Monte Carlo Sampling (PIMC) in imperfect information games in the past, it has been eclipsed by other approaches in recent years. Standard PIMC has well-known shortcomings in the accuracy of its decisions, but has the advantage of being simple, fast, robust and scalable, making it well-suited for imperfect information games with large state-spaces. We propose Presumed Value PIMC resolving the problem of overestimation of opponent's knowledge of hidden information in future game states. The resulting AI agent was tested against human experts in Schnapsen, a Central European 2-player trick-taking card game, and performs above human expert-level.