Improvements of Symmetry Breaking During Search / 4413
Symmetries are common in many constraint problems. They can be broken statically or dynamically. The focus of this paper is the symmetry breaking during search (SBDS) method that adds conditional symmetry breaking constraints upon each backtracking during search. To trade completeness for efficiency, partial SBDS (ParSBDS) is proposed by posting only a subset of symmetries. We propose an adaptation method recursive SBDS (ReSBDS) of ParSBDS which extends ParSBDS to break more symmetry compositions. We observe that the symmetry breaking constraints added for each symmetry at a search node are nogoods and increasing. A global constraint (incNGs), which is logically equivalent to a set of increasing nogoods, is derived. To further trade pruning power for efficiency, we propose weak-nogood consistency (WNC) for nogoods and a lazy propagator for SBDS (and its variants) using watched literal technology. We further define generalized weak-incNGs consistency (GWIC) for a conjunction of increasing nogoods, and give a lazy propagator for incNGs.